Cyber Death by Imagination

Cyber Death by Imagination

Behavioral economics teaches us that we are more fearful of immediate losses than future gains.  Conversely, we are also tend to choose immediate gains over protecting ourselves from future losses.  Especially when the type of loss is too foreign to us or is ever changing.  

We do have available to us a tool that doesn’t require a lot of tech to use but perhaps can do more to both enhance and protect our organization than any piece of software or hardware we might have:  our imagination.

When things are changing, you can’t rely on static measures or processes designed to defend against what today’s threats.  Because the use of technology as a business enabler is ever changing as is the nature of cyber threats, businesses need to take a dynamic approach to risk mitigation and transfer strategies and constantly imagine both the opportunities and the risks they may face tomorrow.

As a report from the UC Berkeley’s Center for Long-Term Cybersecurity and Booz Allen Hamilton states, “….failures of cyber defense in some cases — possibly the most important ones — [are] not necessarily a failure of operational rigor but equally or more so a failure of imagination.”

There are a number of tangible ways businesses can leverage the use of imagination in addressing the cyber risks that they may face.  One is through an incidence response simulation.  Get your team around a table.  Imagine a ransomware event has occurred.  What do you do?  Do you pay the ransom? How long will your systems be down?  How much business do you stand to lose?  Brainstorm other scenarios, focusing on ones that could take you out.  Risks that cause you to be shut down for an extended period of time or do irreparable harm to your ability to serve your customers or to your reputation.

Not only do these types of simulations help you be better prepared to respond if they occur, it also helps you better define what risks you might face and what defenses to build to mitigate those risks.  This can therefore become the basis for your risk assessment (which, if you are simply focused on compliance you generally have to do anyway).

We often think of creativity when it comes to innovation and growth that are critical our long term success.  In the ever-changing world of cyber threats, we need to be equally creative when it comes to imagining and addressing risks what are crucial for our long term viability.

Remember Your First Password?

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We do need to make sure that we are using strong passwords, but guidance has changed on the need to continually change those passwords.  The National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST), which codifies best practice cybersecurity controls, has updated their guidelines around digital identity.  Instead of forcing individuals to change their passwords frequently and/or require a special characters or passwords which are more gibberish, they recommend creating long passwords out of pass phrases, such as “NIST passphrases make passwords easy!”.  Long pass phrases are difficult to crack and yet memorable enough for the user.  

Still, remember not to use the same password twice (use of a log in manager can help you here).  Also, enable multi-factor authentication for applications which may have sensitive information (where you have to both key in a password and enter a code from your smart phone, as an example).

 

Paris Calling…..Faut-il répondre?

Paris Calling…..Faut-il répondre?

This week, Canada announced that, along with Microsoft and the Alliance for Securing Democracy, they will be leading an initiative to counter election interference as outlined in the Paris Call for Trust and Security in Cyberspace. The Paris Call is an international agreement outlining steps to establish universal norms for cybersecurity and privacy. The agreement has now been signed by over 550 entities, including 95 countries and hundreds of nonprofits, universities, and corporations. Nations such as Russia, China, and Israel did not sign the agreement, but one country’s absence is particularly notable—the U.S.

While the Paris Call is largely symbolic, with no legally-binding standards, it does outline 9 principles that the agreement commits to uphold and promote. Among these principles are the protection of individuals and infrastructure from cyber attack, the defense of intellectual property, and the defense of election from interference.

Non-Government Entities are Governing Cybersecurity Norms

Despite the U.S.’s absence from the agreement, many of the United States’ largest tech companies signed the agreement, such as IBM, Facebook, and Google. In addition, Microsoft says it worked especially close with the French government to write the Paris Call. The inclusion of private organizations in the agreement is a sign of the increasing importance of non-governmental entities in shaping and enforcing cybersecurity practices. The fact that Microsoft—and not the U.S.—is taking a lead on the agreement’s principle to counter election inference is a particularly strong example of how private companies are shaping the relationship between technology and democracy.

A Flawed Step, But a Step Nonetheless

Some organizations that signed the agreement, however, remain wary of private influence and how it might affect some of the principles of the Paris Call. Access Now, a non-profit dedicated to a free and open internet, raised concerns about how the agreement might give too much authority to private companies. One of the agreement’s principles, for example, encourages stakeholders to cooperate to address cyber criminality, which Access Now worries could be interpreted as a relaxing of judicial standards that would allow for an “informal exchange of data” between companies and government agencies. The non-profit also worries the principle concerning the protection of intellectual property could lead to a “heavy-handed approach,” by both private and public entities, “that could limit the flow of information online and risk freedom of expression and the right to privacy.”

On the opposite side, others have argued that the principles are more fluff than substance, fairy tales without specificity and accountability.

That being said, Paris Call is at the very least an acknowledgment that, similar to climate change, our global reliance on technology requires policy coordination on a global scale, involving not only nations, but the technology companies that are helping define our future, as well.  After all, it’s hard to imagine solving any global issue without a coordinated technology supporting us.  Paris Call may not be the right answer, but we probably should pick up and be part of the conversation.

Hacks Against Healthcare Industry on the Rise

Hackers are continuing to use the coronavirus crisis for personal profit. We recently wrote about the increase in malicious sites and phishing campaigns impersonating the World Health Organization and other healthcare companies. But now hackers appear to be turning their sights to the healthcare sector itself. Here are two notable cases from the past few weeks.

WHO Malware Attempt

Earlier this week, the World Health Organization confirmed hackers attempted to steal credentials from their employees. On March 13th a group of hackers launched a malicious site imitating the WHO’s internal email system. Luckily, the attempted attack was caught early and did not succeed in gaining access to the WHO’s systems. However, this is just one of many attempts being made to hack into the WHO. The chief information security officer for the organization Flavio Aggio told Reuters that hacking attempts and impersonations have doubled since the coronavirus outbreak.

Similar attempted hacks against other healthcare organizations are popping up every day. Costin Raiu, head of global research and analysis at Kaspersky, told Reuters that “any information about cures or tests or vaccines relating to coronavirus would be priceless and the priority of any intelligence organization of an affected country.”

Ransomware Attack Against HMR

Unlike the attack on the WHO, a recent ransomware attack was successful in stealing information from a UK-based medical company, Hammersmith Medicines Research (HMR). The company, which performs clinical trials of tests and vaccines, discovered an attack in progress on March 14th. While they were successful of restoring their systems, ransomware group called Maze took responsibility. On March 21st, Maze dumped the medical information of thousands of previous patients and threatened to release more documents unless HMR paid a ransom. HMR has not disclosed how the attack occurred, but have stated that they will not pay the ransom.

Four days after the initial attack, Maze released a statement saying they would not target medical organization during the coronavirus pandemic. Yet, this did not stop them from publicizing the stolen medical information a week later. After the attack gained publicity, Maze changed their tune. The group removed all of the stolen files from their website, but blamed the healthcare industry for their lack of security procedures: “We want to show that the system is unreliable. The cyber security is weak. The people who should care about the security of information are unreliable. We want to show that nobody cares about the users,” Maze said.

Conclusion

 Times of crisis and confusion are a hacker’s delight. The staggering increase of hacks against the healthcare industry only help prove that.  The key to mitigating these threats is to ensure that security configurations are set to industry best practices, continuously scan your networks, lock down or close open ports, secure or (preferably) remove Remote Desktop Protocol, and require Multi-Factor authentication for any remote access.  And certainly, make sure you are testing your incidence response plan.

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Cyber Resiliency is the New Cyber Security

Here is the bottom line: when it comes to cyber threats, wshould of course take steps to protect ourselves and our businesses from attacks. However, we also need to prepare ourselves for the very real possibility that, at some point, someone will get into our systemsThat’s why many cyber experts are beginning to use the new term “cyber resiliency.”  

The concept of cyber resiliency stems from an understanding that the cyber threat landscape is so diverse that it’s important to make sure you can withstand and not simply prevent attacks. The overall goal of a cyber resilient system is therefore to maintain essential operating functions even when it is under attack. 

The Basics of Cyber Resiliency 

In the fall, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) released a cyber resiliency engineering framework that provides detailed steps organization can take to minimize the impact of attacks. However, the overall framework can be broken down into four basic goals: 

1. Anticipate 

According to the NIST framework, the first goal of cyber resiliency includes preventative measures often included in cyber security policies. However, anticipating a cyber threat goes beyond prevention by also focusing on preparing for an attack. This includes having an incident response plan in place, as well as changing your system often in order to preempt attacks.

2. Withstand  

Withstanding a cyber attack should involve steps taken to limit the overall damage an attack has, even if you haven’t detected the attack yetIn general, this involves deflecting the attack to areas that can take the most damage without disrupting day to day activitiesYou should also be prepared to entirely remove and replace systems that are badly damaged. 

3. Recover 

Before an attack even happens, you should know exactly how you plan to recover if one ever happens. This should primarily involve being prepared to revert your systems back to the state they were in before the attack. Recovery strategies will therefore depend heavily on having good backups of your system that you test regularly

4. Adapt 

At bottom, adaption means understanding that if the threat landscape continues to change, so do your security policies and systems. You should constantly be looking for new vulnerabilities within your system as well as new forms of cyber threats.  If an attack does happen, you should also be willing to take a hard look at how it happened and make changes accordingly.  

Leaders are best equipped to drive cyber resiliency efforts 

It is important to understand that these four cyber resiliency goals were designed to encourage communication between leadership-level business risk management strategies and the rest of the organizationWe’ve written before about the importance of proper governance and business leadership when it comes to cyber security and the same goes for cyber resiliency.  

Because many executives don’t come from a background in cyber security, it may seem to make the most sense to leave the responsibility to the IT department or someone trained security. However, cyber resiliency is as much a function of culture as anything: how we govern, organize, and communicate about cyber threats are all necessary considerations for putting cyber resilient policies into action.  

That’s why Accenture Security’s 2019 State of Cyber Resiliency Report emphasizes the three skills business leaders have that make them essential to any cyber resiliency policy:  

Scaling

The report found that leaders who scaled technologies and security systems across all levels of the organization were far more effective at both preventing attacks and discovering attacks already in place.  

 

Training 

 

Offering comprehensive security training across all levels of the organization also proved to be an effective method for protecting and maintaining system during cyber attacksBusiness leaders are therefore key for investing in and maintaining robust training programs.  

 

Collaborating 

 

Perhaps the most important skill a business leader brings to cyber resiliency is the ability to collaborate. Putting in place a cyber resiliency policy requires cooperation and communication between all levels and aspects of the business. By bringing different groups together and keeping everyone on the same page, organizations can be confident their policies and practices are as effective as possible.  

The Take Away

At its root, cyber resiliency involves preparing all aspects of an organization so that any potential cyber threat has a minimal impact on business operations. This involves well-informed risk management strategies, effective communication and training for employees, updated intrusion detection systemsand a strong incidence response plan that is tested and revised regularly. Cyber resiliency takes a village but depends first and foremost on leadership team that takes the task seriously. 

Cyber Awareness 4 mins at a time

Last week we announced our new Behavior-Designed Cyber Awareness ProgramOne part of that program will be a structured phish simulation campaigns; another part of the program is series of courses on a broad range of topics related to digital awareness, appropriate security practices, and behavioral biases which impact susceptibility to phishing emails and other forms of social engineering. Each course contains a number of micro-lessons designed to take only a few minutes — typically around 4 minutes — to complete. The intent of each course, in addition to the phish simulations that will run concurrently, is to give participants the tools they need to recognize and modify their online behavior in order to maintain a safer and healthier digital presence.  

Soon we will be rolling out the entire program, but for now we want to offer a sneak peak of what’s to come. Right now we are offering a free preview of a course on phishing attacks and how to spot them. If you want to try it out click here and enroll now for free 

And, if you haven’t already, you can check out a review of our new program published as a part of the Stanford Peace Tech Lab.